Abundant, yet still inadequately reused, bio waste offers certain environmental advantages. Hence the reasoning behind the increase in different types of recovery, such as composting and biogas.
What is bio waste?
Bio waste from local authorities (green waste, kitchen scraps, etc.), supermarkets and hypermarkets, restaurant waste, waste from the agro-food industry and sludge from wastewater treatment plants.
Composed of food scraps (vegetable peels, eggshells), branches, leaves, paper and cardboard, bio waste is biodegradable waste produced by companies and individuals. It is generated by local authorities, supermarkets and hypermarkets, the restaurant industry and the agro-food industry. Sludge from wastewater treatment plants is also considered bio waste.
According to the European Commission and the French Environment and Energy Management Agency (ADEME), bio waste deposits in Europe total 190 kg/year/inhabitant. In France this number is 350 kg/year/inhabitant. The country stored 27 per cent of its biodegradable waste in 2009, versus 1 per cent for Germany, since the latter has historically been engaged in bio waste recovery.
What do we with bio waste?
Solutions for recovering bio waste exist. Mechanical biological treatment (MBT), which is a machine-assisted process, isolates the fermentable portion of waste from the rest of household rubbish. The resulting material is then recovered by composting or methanisation. Composting transforms organic waste into humus, a fertilising material for soil and gardens. Waste gradually decomposes under the combined action of water, microorganisms (fungi, bacteria, etc.) and oxygen. Methanisation, on the other hand, refers to a natural fermentation process in a closed environment designed to produce biogas.
Bio waste recovery has undeniable advantages. By reincorporating them into their natural cycle, these elements can be used to enrich soil, or produce electricity and heat. Use of bio waste also reduces the need for chemical fertilisers. Since 1 January 2012, food distribution, non-domestic catering and the agro-food industry in France are obligated to sort and recycle their waste. SITA France, a SUEZ ENVIRONNEMENT subsidiary, has bio-depackaging plants to perform these two operations.
How can I make compost from fresh and/or dried hay and dried beech leaves?
1. Collect the raw materials together first, then put them in the compost bin. (if if condition permits, please shred the dried hay into very small pieces-1/2 to 1 1/2 inches in size-is best for fast compost )
2. Dried hay is carbon-rich Materials. To keep the C:N ratio being near to 30:1,nitrogen rich materials, such as manure, green leaves, weeds, should be added in the bin too.
3. Add water into the materials to keep the moisture content is between 50%-60%.
4. all the conditions mentioned above will accelerate the whole composting process. otherwise, it maybe takes a longer time to fulfill your compost.
5. leave all the materials peacefully on the compost bin. They will “mature” after a period of time.
But if there is super great amount of hay waste, a compost turner will help you a lot in the whole fermentation process. Turner machine is mainly used to periodically turn the compost pile.