Ten recommended actions on energy, consumption, and cities were outlined in an outcome document at the end of a three-day conference by the Asian Productivity Organisation (APO) last week in Taipei.
The APO International Conference, under the Eco-Products International Fair 2014, focused on the impacts of climate change, particularly the concept of ‘climate departure’ or the projected timings of when countries will face the dangerous repercussions of climate change from 2020 onwards.
This refers to the findings of a University of Hawaii study reported last October in Nature, which detailed the clear indication that this ‘climate departure’ is expected to occur earlier than previously thought in Asia and the Pacific.
The APO document stressed the “need for a sense of urgency” – to set in motion “actions to make our cities and countries more sustainable, to reduce dependence on fossil fuels, reduce emissions of greenhouse gases, speed up the introduction of renewable energy, increase energy efficiency measures, and promote the prudent use of natural resources”.
The document, which will be delivered to the United Nations and its agencies, is seen as a wake-up call for all countries in the region. The targets listed demand that cities and countries in the Asia Pacific to meet at least 20 per cent of energy demand from renewable sources by 2020, as well as “to achieve up to 20 per cent improvement in energy efficiency across the board by 2020”.
Other calls to action include the promotion of “sustainable consumption and production”, calling on governments to set examples for green purchasing and procurement, and the need to build “resilience into sustainable, smart, liveable cities”, such as by introduction of “sustainable technologies and transport in urban areas”.
The APO document stressed the “need for a sense of urgency” – to set in motion “actions to make our cities and countries more sustainable, to reduce dependence on fossil fuels, reduce emissions of greenhouse gases, speed up the introduction of renewable energy, increase energy efficiency measures, and promote the prudent use of natural resources”
This document reflects APO’s strong commitment to making a positive contribution in line with the objectives of producing “action-oriented, concise, and easy to communicate” sustainable development goals following the Rio+20 United Nations Conference on Sustainable Development and “The Future We Want” outcome document adopted at Rio+20. Here are the ten recommended actions:
Creating an energy future sustainable for all
Action 1: Set targets for cities and countries in the Asia Pacific to meet at least 20% of energy demand from renewable sources by 2020
While there is an awareness of the amount of work done by various enterprises to initiate and fund renewable energy projects in the Asia Pacific, greater recognition must still be given to these efforts, along with more funding and policy support from international agencies and governments.
Other countries in the region continue to be constrained in terms of importing energy supply, although some nations are already ahead with their use of renewable energy. The EU has increased its renewable energy target to 27% by 2030; therefore, a regional approach with regional targets is required in the Asia Pacific.
Action 2: Set targets for cities and countries in the Asia Pacific to achieve up to 20% improvement in energy efficiency across the board by 2020
Since energy efficiency is the quickest way to achieve reductions in greenhouse gas emissions, countries and cities in the Asia Pacific should commit to a target of 20% improvement (compared to 2014 levels) in energy efficiency across the board by 2020. They should also standardise the energy efficiency criteria for industries, buildings, automobiles, and home and office appliances in the region.
More collaboration between the public and private sectors is required in every city and country to commit resources and funding to achieve the required level of energy efficiency.
Action 3: Encourage greater participation and partnerships among diverse stakeholders to enable access to sustainable energy for all
International and regional agencies, along with APO member governments, should encourage greater participation by all stakeholders and increase partnerships between the public and private sectors. This is to ensure that all have access to energy from sustainable sources and energy security is achieved.
This is in line with the objectives of the UN initiative on “Sustainable Energy for All” and other similar “Energy for All” campaigns. Greater media and community involvement is required to draw attention to what governments, businesses, and NGOs are currently doing. Establishing a Clean and Green Energy Day (or Week) and intensive information campaigns would help focus attention on this, especially if promoted across all cities and countries in the region.
Action 4: Adopt low-carbon technologies along with other energy management initiatives
Low-carbon technologies, along with the use of renewable energy sources, must be considered as an important part of environmental solutions and a key factor in introducing and managing energy security, productivity gains, sustainability of supply, and technological innovations.
For example, advancements in solar panels have significantly brought down costs and led to wider adoption of solar technologies by businesses and households in many countries. Similarly, feed-in tariffs have incentivized purchases of solar systems. These help encourage the use and production of low-carbon technologies, especially in countries where there are subsidies for fossil fuels.
With the growing threat of climate change, cities in vulnerable locations need to prepare for the worst and adapt to rising sea levels, extreme weather, and possibly more frequent storm surges. There is a need to recognise the role of various stakeholders in promoting urban planning practices that take into account sustainability and smart liveability
Promoting sustainable consumption and production
Action 5: Recognise the need for governments to set examples for green purchasing and procurement
Governments should adopt policies and practices that only allow the purchase of sustainable products and services, such that these use less energy and raw materials, produce less waste, and these support small producers and fair trade. This would minimize the overall environmental footprint in the region.
Governments also need to work with the private sector to encourage behavioural changes in the purchasing departments of public and private organisations. Sustainable consumption and production should likewise be mainstreamed as an overarching development framework in the planning process of each country.
Action 6: Emphasise the importance of designing and producing sustainable products and services among businesses
Businesses must manage the environmental and social impacts of their production and operations. They should design products and packaging that can easily be reused, repaired, or recycled. The private sector should also examine new business models for turning products into services, so that consumers pay for access rather than ownership of products.
Action 7: Encourage public-privatesector partnerships to promote sustainable products among consumers
The public and private sectors should develop effective educational campaigns that enlighten consumers on the environmental impact of their choice of products and services. Businesses should ensure that their products and services are certified by recognized eco-label and green certification programmes so consumers can consciously opt for green products.
They also need to conduct shared research studies and surveys on consumer attitudes toward green products and services, eco-labels, and how these affect their purchasing behaviour.
Building resilience into sustainable, smart and liveable cities
Action 8: Develop benchmarks and best practices for more resilient, sustainable, smart and liveable cities
With the growing threat of climate change, cities in vulnerable locations need to prepare for the worst and adapt to rising sea levels, extreme weather, and possibly more frequent storm surges. There is a need to recognise the role of various stakeholders in promoting urban planning practices that take into account sustainability and smart liveability. Cities that have started to take the lead in these areas should be duly recognised.
Action 9: Encourage more test bedding of projects with public–private partnerships
Test-bedding projects should be encouraged within public–private partnerships since this leads to smart, sustainable solutions and technologies for cities, which can be shared among countries in the region.
Governments should also initiate holistic programs in the urban sector to promote renewable energy use, deploy electric vehicles or special-purpose vehicle systems, design self-sustaining buildings, and adopt municipal and industrial waste or biomass-to-energy projects.
Action 10: Introduce sustainable technologies and transport in urban areas
More sustainable transport systems and measures should be introduced in urban areas. This will help manage the mobility and settlement of people, reduce poverty, create jobs, and resolve other social issues, as well as reduce traffic congestion and air pollution that occur in a number of cities in the region.
Transforming cities for the better through sustainable technologies should be prioritized. With the need to improve quality of life and economic competitiveness, cities must become more resource-efficient and environmentally friendly. Technology is a key lever for sustainable city development.
Effective infrastructure contributes to economic prosperity and an improved quality of life. Urban residents need clean air, potable water, security, efficient buildings, a reliable power grid, and mobility solutions.
Ken Hickson, chairman of Sustain Ability Showcase Asia (SASA) and one of the speakers at the APO Taipei conference on the subject of “Sustainable Cities Go Beyond Green to Blue”, contributed to the outcome document, as did other speakers and experts from the region. He can be reached at email@example.com